Pacific Stem Kit WAV MiDi
Guitar Hero World Tour (initially referred to as Guitar Hero IV or Guitar Hero IV: World Tour) is a music video game developed by Neversoft and published by RedOctane and Activision. It is the fourth main entry in the Guitar Hero series. The game was launched in North America in October 26, 2008 for the PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, Wii, and Xbox 360 consoles, and a month later for Europe and Australia. A version of Guitar Hero World Tour for Microsoft Windows and Apple Macintosh has also been announced for a release on July 26, 2009 and was the last Guitar Hero game published to these operating systems by Aspyr Media.
Pacific Stem Kit WAV MiDi
Loss of a base in DNA leading to creation of an abasic (AP) site leaving a deoxyribose residue in the strand, is a frequent lesion that may occur spontaneously or under the action of various physical and chemical agents. Progress in the understanding of the chemistry and enzymology of abasic DNA largely relies upon the study of AP sites in synthetic duplexes. We report here on interactions of diastereomerically pure metallo-helical 'flexicate' complexes, bimetallic triple-stranded ferro-helicates [Fe2(NN-NN)3](4+) incorporating the common NN-NN bis(bidentate) helicand, with short DNA duplexes containing AP sites in different sequence contexts. The results show that the flexicates bind to AP sites in DNA duplexes in a shape-selective manner. They preferentially bind to AP sites flanked by purines on both sides and their binding is enhanced when a pyrimidine is placed in opposite orientation to the lesion. Notably, the Λ-enantiomer binds to all tested AP sites with higher affinity than the Δ-enantiomer. In addition, the binding of the flexicates to AP sites inhibits the activity of human AP endonuclease 1, which is as a valid anticancer drug target. Hence, this finding indicates the potential of utilizing well-defined metallo-helical complexes for cancer chemotherapy. The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are abundant DNA lesions arising from exposure to UV light, ionizing radiation, alkylating agents, and oxygen radicals. In human cells, AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) recognizes this mutagenic lesion and initiates its repair via a specific incision of the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. We have investigated a detailed mechanism of APE1 functioning using fluorescently labeled DNA substrates. A fluorescent adenine analogue, 2-aminopurine, was introduced into DNA substrates adjacent to the abasic site to serve as an on-site reporter of conformational transitions in DNA during the catalytic cycle. Application of a pre-steady-state stopped-flow technique allows us to observe changes in the fluorescence intensity corresponding to different stages of the process in real time. We also detected an intrinsic Trp fluorescence of the enzyme during interactions with 2-aPu-containing substrates. Our data have revealed a conformational flexibility of the abasic DNA being processed by APE1. Quantitative analysis of fluorescent traces has yielded a minimal kinetic scheme and appropriate rate constants consisting of four steps. The results obtained from stopped-flow data have shown a substantial influence of the 2-aPu base location on completion of certain reaction steps. Using detailed molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA substrates, we have attributed structural distortions of AP-DNA to realization of specific binding, effective locking, and incision of the damaged DNA. The findings allowed us to accurately discern the step that corresponds to insertion of specific APE1 amino acid residues into the abasic DNA void in the course of stabilization of the precatalytic complex.
Loss of a base in DNA and the creation of an abasic (apurinic/apyrimidinic, AP) site is a frequent lesion that may occur spontaneously, or as a consequence of the action of DNA-damaging agents. The AP lesion is mutagenic or lethal if not repaired. We report a systematic thermodynamic investigation by differential scanning calorimetry on the evolution, during primer extension, of a model AP site in chemically simulated DNA translesion synthesis. Incorporation of dAMP (deoxyadenosine monophosphate), as well as dTMP (deoxythymidine monophosphate), opposite an AP site is enthalpically unfavorable, although incorporation of dTMP is more enthalpically unfavorable than that of dAMP. This finding is in a good agreement with experimental data showing that AP sites block various DNA polymerases of eukaryotic and prokaryotic origin and that, if bypassed, dAMP is preferentially inserted, whereas insertion of dTMP is less likely. The results emphasize the importance of thermodynamic contributions to the insertion of nucleotides opposite an AP site by DNA polymerases. 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease Apn1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key enzyme involved in the base excision repair (BER) at the cleavage stage of abasic sites (AP sites) in DNA. The crystal structure of Apn1 from S. cerevisiae is unresolved. Based on its high amino acid homology to Escherichia coli Endo IV, His-83 is believed to coordinate one of three Zn2+ ions in Apn1's active site similar to His-69 in Endo IV. Substituting His-83 with Ala is proposed to decrease the AP endonuclease activity of Apn1 owing to weak coordination of Zn2+ ions involved in enzymatic catalysis. The kinetics of recognition, binding, and incision of DNA substrates with the H83A Apn1 mutant was investigated. The stopped-flow method detecting fluorescence intensity changes of 2-aminopurine (2-aPu) was used to monitor the conformational dynamics of DNA at pre-steady-state conditions. We found substituting His-83 with Ala influenced catalytic complex formation and further incision of the damaged DNA strand. The H83A Apn1 catalysis depends not only on the location of the mismatch relative to the abasic site in DNA, but also on the nature of damage. We consider His-83 properly coordinates the active site Zn2+ ion playing a crucial role in catalytic incision stage. Our data prove suppressed enzymatic activity of H83A Apn1 results from the reduced number of active site Zn2+ ions. Our study provides insights into mechanistic specialty of AP site repair by yeast AP endonuclease Apn1 of Endo IV family, which members are not found in mammals, but are present in many microorganisms. The results will provide useful guidelines for design of new anti-fungal and anti-malarial agents. Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates (rNMPs) are the most common non-standard nucleotides found in DNA of eukaryotic cells, with over 100 million rNMPs transiently incorporated in the mammalian genome per cell cycle. Human ribonuclease (RNase) H2 is the principal enzyme able to cleave rNMPs in DNA. Whether RNase H2 may process abasic or oxidized rNMPs incorporated in DNA is unknown. The base excision repair (BER) pathway is mainly responsible for repairing oxidized and abasic sites into DNA. Here we show that human RNase H2 is unable to process an abasic rNMP (rAP site) or a ribose 8oxoG (r8oxoG) site embedded in DNA. On the contrary, we found that recombinant purified human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 (APE1) and APE1 from human cell extracts efficiently process an rAP site in DNA and have weak endoribonuclease and 3'-exonuclease activities on r8oxoG substrate. Using biochemical assays, our results provide evidence of a human enzyme able to recognize and process abasic and oxidized ribonucleotides embedded in DNA. The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Repetitive DNA sequences, such as those present in microsatellites and minisatellites, telomeres, and trinucleotide repeats (linked to fragile X syndrome, Huntington disease, etc.), account for nearly 30% of the human genome. These domains exhibit enhanced susceptibility to oxidative attack to yield base modifications, strand breaks, and abasic sites; have a propensity to adopt non-canonical DNA forms modulated by the positions of the lesions; and, when not properly processed, can contribute to genome instability that underlies aging and disease development. Knowledge on the repair efficiencies of DNA damage within such repetitive sequences is therefore crucial for understanding the impact of such domains on genomic integrity. In the present study, using strategically designed oligonucleotide substrates, we determined the ability of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) to cleave at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in a collection of tandem DNA repeat landscapes involving telomeric and CAG/CTG repeat sequences. Our studies reveal the differential influence of domain sequence, conformation, and AP site location/relative positioning on the efficiency of APE1 binding and strand incision. Intriguingly, our data demonstrate that APE1 endonuclease efficiency correlates with the thermodynamic stability of the DNA substrate. We discuss how these results have both predictive and mechanistic consequences for understanding the success and failure of repair protein activity associated with such oxidatively sensitive, conformationally plastic/dynamic repetitive DNA domains. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
C4'-oxidized (C4-AP) and C5'-oxidized abasic sites (DOB) that are produced following abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the DNA backbone reversibly form cross-links selectively with dA opposite a 3'-adjacent nucleotide, despite the comparable proximity of an opposing dA. A previous report on UvrABC incision of DNA substrates containing stabilized analogues of the ICLs derived from C4-AP and DOB also indicated that the latter is repaired more readily by nucleotide excision repair [Ghosh, S., and Greenberg, M. M. (2014) Biochemistry 53, 5958-5965]. The source for selective cross-link formation was probed by comparing the reactivity of ICL analogues of C4-AP and DOB that mimic the preferred and disfavored cross-links with that of reagents that indirectly detect distortion by reacting with the nucleobases. The disfavored C4-AP and DOB analogues were each more reactive than the corresponding preferred cross-link substrates, suggesting that the latter are more stable, which is consistent with selective ICL formation. In addition, the preferred DOB analogue is more reactive than the respective C4-AP ICL, which is consistent with its more efficient incision by UvrABC. The conclusions drawn from the chemical probing experiments are corroborated by UV melting studies. The preferred ICLs exhibit melting temperatures higher than those of the corresponding disfavored isomers. These studies suggest that oxidized abasic sites form reversible interstrand cross-links with dA opposite the 3'-adjacent thymidine because these products are more stable and the thermodynamic preference is reflected in the transition states for their formation.